Another early and popular clockwork locomotive was the #0 with iron wheels. It was sold
in combination with a #328 tender and #1107 coach as a set. The #3 locomotive was a variation of the #0 that had an
open cab ventilator hatch and was combined with a #120 tender. Production of the #3 windup loco lasted without
substantial change into the 1920's. The #1107 coach and #1108 Express baggage 5½" 4 Wheeled passenger cars initially offered
in clockwork sets starting around 1914, eventually were also offered in electric sets as well. These two cars continued to be
produced for another 20 years. There are endless variations found, as the car's couplers, frames, roof colors and lithography
were altered over the years. The lithography process involved the printing of each of four colors individually on a sheet of
tinplate and it was therefore very easy to change just one of those four colors to produce another variation. The passenger
coach always had 8 windows per side, and two doors with a smaller window on each side, one towards each end. The baggage car
always had a sliding door. A series of 6½" long tinplate passenger cars was also introduced by American Flyer in 1910. These
cars had 5 long windows on each side and were produced in both four and eight wheeled versions. These included the #1202 and
#1203 cars that were introduced in 1919. The series of this sized car continued until the mid 1930's.
In 1913, William Hafner left the company. Believing he would be given a significant portion of the company if the trains
proved successful, Coleman refused when Hafner asked to exercise this option. Hafner started the
Hafner Manufacturing Company, which sold a line of trains called Overland Flyer. Sommers immediately
stopped carrying the American Flyer trains in favor of Hafner's brand. Initially, the Hafner and American Flyer product lines
were very similar, suggesting they may have been built using the same tooling. This suggests the possibility of the two
companies continuing to collaborate. Hafner's business survived as a manufacturer of clockwork trains until 1951, when he
sold his business to All Metal Products Company.
W.O. Coleman, Jr. joined the company in 1914. Also in 1914 the American Flyer catalog illustrations included a new style of
boxcar. It was listed as being 5½ inches long and was catalogued as #M1110. It was the first American Flyer boxcar to bare the
herald of an actual railroad - the Illinois Central. This car was similar in appearance to German made box cars from this era,
having 4 wheels, and assembled entirely of lithographed tinplate. American Flyer's business grew during World War I, which
locked out the German manufacturers that had dominated the U.S. toy train market to that point. During this time, American
Flyer also introduced bicycle and motorcycle toys, segmented its market by creating both a low-priced and a high-priced
line, and began to depart from its earlier designs by William Hafner. They also expanded to other market territories,
In 1918, William Coleman died and his son, William Ogden Coleman, Jr., took over the company.
At that time the factory and administrative offices of the American Flyer Manufacturing Co. were located
at 2219-2239 South Halsted Street in Chicago. The factory had its own railroad sidings and dock so cars
could be slid inside the building for unloading/loading.
Also in 1918, after World War I, American Flyer introduced its first electric train, an 'O' gauge steam outline model that was
simply a windup model with an electric motor in place of the clockwork motor. This was a common practice at the
time. The electric loco used the castings of the large #15. This style of engine lasted through 1924. From 1924 to 1930
electrified steam models disappeared completely from the American Flyer catalogues. Only electric outline locomotives were
offered. Between 1920 and 1934, the company released electric toy trains meant to resemble trains running in New England at
the time. They were made out of lithographed steel, enameled steel, and cast iron. Electric-outline locomotives of this period
were the #1201 (no headlight), and #1217 (with headlight). These evolved into the well-known #1218, #1270, and the
uncatalogued long-framed #7011 of 1928, and the #3110 in the 1929 Explorer set. The line of electric types in the later 1920's
also included the #3011 and set, and the little lithographed #1096 box-cab.
3000 series 'O' gauge Tinplate Lithographed 9½ inch Freight Cars
Even though electric trains were growing in popularity in the late 1920's the mechanical train continued to
be a big-selling item for American Flyer. A variety of trains were offered to the prospective buyer, ranging from the Empire
Express, the #7, the #13 set, powered by the #14 loco, and a train of double-truck cars drawn by the #16 steamer,
which was the largest in the line. The end of the 1920's signaled many changes at American Flyer. The electric
trains began to over-shadow the mechanicals in sales. Zinc die-casting began to replace cast-iron, and enamel replaced
lithographed finishes in all but the most inexpensive sets. A new version of the 5½" 4-wheel passenger cars were issued in
1921. These were the #1120 series, similar to the #1107 and #1108 cars, they shared the same frame, roof, wheels and couplers.
These cars were produced as both coach and observation car, in various liveries until 1932. The body has four large windows.
No cast-iron locomotives were cataloged after 1932.
3000 series 'O' gauge Tinplate Lithographed Passenger Sets
Starting in 1922 the 9½" long 'O' gauge 8-wheeled Columbia and Illini Series of passenger cars were
produced. The Columbia cars were lithographed in either tuscan red or brown, while the Illini cars came in various shades of
green. The three cars in each series were Pullman, Baggage and in 1925 an Observation car was made. Variations are numerous.
The Columbia Pullman had 16 windows on each side and was #3001. The Columbia baggage car was a United States Post Office Mail
Baggage Car #3000. When the Observation car was released, it too was #3001. The Illini cars came in the Jeffersonian set.
These cars came lighted or unlighted. Kits could be acquired to add lights to the unlighted cars. Subsequent passenger cars
were #3180, #3181 and #3182 which were 8¼" long and were utilized in the Potomoc set in 1928-29, #3280, #3281 and #3282 at 9½"
long that were made up until 1934 and used in the Golden State set, and the #3380, #3381 and #3382 11" length cars
catalogued from 1928 until 1935 used in the Man of War set.
In 1925, American Flyer began offering 2⅛" Wide gauge electric trains at a premium price, attempting to
compete with Lionel Corporation's Standard gauge trains at the high end of the
market. Marketed as 'Wonder Trains,' American Flyer's shiny, brightly colored train sets had patriotic names
like 'American Legion,' 'President's Special,' and 'Mayflower.' They were also extremely pricey for the 1920's.
The cadmium-plated 'Mayflower' set, for example, ran about $100, a full month’s salary for an average person.
Wide gauge was the fad gauge of the 1920's, with Flyer and Lionel the big makers, and Ives,
Boucher and Dorfan with significant shares of the market.
American Flyer Wide gauge New Haven style Electric Outline Locomotives
Initially American Flyer only offered locomotives that were electric outline types modeled after the New
York and New Haven railroad prototypes. American Flyer Wide gauge passenger cars were produced in two sizes - 14" long and 19"
long. Five or six different body styles were made. These included mail/baggage cars, club cars (combo baggage and passenger
car), Pullman, Dining car and observation car (2 versions in 14"- one with 6 long windows, and one with 12 narrow windows).
19" passengers cars can be found with either 4-wheel or 6-wheel trucks. Early cars had lithography, while later versions were
painted and embossed.
Wide gauge Passenger Sets
In 1926, at the height of the tinplate era of model toy train manufacturing, American Flyer introduced
its top-of-the-line Wide gauge passenger set - the 'President's Special'. This set featured a painted 'Commander' type
electric locomotive modeled after the New York Central line's 12 wheeler, pulling 19" long lithographed passenger cars,
initially just 3 cars, but later on 4. These were initially the #4090 US Mail Railway Post office car, #4091 'West Point'
Pullman, and #4092 'Army-Navy' observation car. The 'Academy' diner and the 'Annapolis' Pullman were eventually added
(replaced the West Point Pullman), and the RPO car was replaced by the West Point Combo car. The 4-car set weighed 40 lbs.
and was 100" long. It featured an array of solid brass and polished nickel trim and was illuminated by 15 miniature Mazda
lamps. By 1928 the 'President's Special' evolved into a totally embossed, painted set with brass window inserts and details.
It carried a $75 price tag. The 1930 American Flyer catalog said that it was, "America’s finest miniature railroad train and
the 'crack' train of the American Flyer lines, modeled after the 20th Century - America’s Finest! Rich and beyond mere words
to express its fascinating beauty, the 'President’s Special', a four-car train, stands out in bold relief, distinctive and
individual against all other miniature trains." The 'President's Special set was depicted on the cover of the 1928
American Flyer catalog in a 2-tone red paint scheme, however it was never produced in those colors by American Flyer.
The brass-trimmed #4637 Wide gauge 0-4-0 electric loco was the first American Flyer St. Paul-Style Cab
Electric, and was introduced in 1928. The 15" long locomotive came equipped with remote control reverse, a patented
fire-box light, brass plates, brass steps, brass doors, 2 brass pantographs, 2 headlights and a new ringing bell. The American
Flyer catalog copy said, "...a striking example of that consummate mastery of little things by which scaled reproduction and
brilliance is attained". The loco had a green body and a tan chassis. It was named the 'Shasta' and it headed up the
Pocahontas passenger cars or the 'Mountaineer' freight set that initial year. All four 14" passenger cars in the Pocahontas
set featured tan bodies with green roofs and trucks, brass number and name plates, brass journal boxes, brass trimmed
windows, brass grab rails, a brass knob on the baggage car doors, a brass platform on the observation car, and 4-wheel trucks.
These cars were the #4340 Club car, the #4341 Pullman, #4343 Diner and the #4342 Observation car. In subsequent years, less
trimmed and slightly shorter versions of the St. Paul type locomotive appeared in American Flyer catalogs. These were the
#4635, #4683 and #4685 locomotives that headed up 'The
Pathfinder', 'Stadium' and 'Lone Scout' freight and passenger sets. In 1932, after a sharp reduction in the number of
variations was offered, the #4637 headed up the #1468 'Legionaire' set in green and tan. In that set, the #4637 pulled three
19" 'President’s Special' passenger cars sporting the same livery found on the 14" Pocahontas passenger cars of 1928. This set
is one of the hardest American Flyer Wide gauge passenger sets to find today.
'The Hamiltonian' set was featured in the 1929 catalog as, "one of American Flyer's De Luxe models, similar
in style and make-up to the 'President's Special'. It is a large 5' 3" long and is finished in a three-tone color
scheme of brilliant enamel - the predominating color being Victory Red. All windows and doors are individual brass frames with
individual transparencies. The train is illuminated with 8 Mazda lamps. Gross weight 27 lbs." The train set featured either a
15" long model #4678 or #4667 New Haven style electric outline Locomotive with a triple action remote control reverse,
an automatic ringing bell, and twin reversible headlights. It came with the 14" long #4340 Club car, #4341 Pullman, and the
#4342 Observation car.
In 1926 American Flyer used Lionel #10 series car bodies for their first standard gauge freight car
offerings. In order to fit on the American Flyer engine coupler slot, one of the coupler inverted 'T' tabs was filed off.
These freight cars are easily identifiable as on the bottom of each car is marked "Made for American Flyer Lines". The freight
cars were produced for one year only and were not included in sets. American Flyer did not change the body paint colors from
the original Lionel versions. The 4 freight cars that were offered were the box car, stock car, gondola and caboose. By 1927
American Flyer was producing their own Wide gauge freight cars using the same #4000 series numbers they had applied to the
American Flyer #4000 Series Standard gauge Freight Cars
In 1928, American Flyer's competitor Ives went bankrupt. American Flyer and Lionel jointly purchased and
operated Ives until 1930, when
American Flyer sold its share to Lionel. During this time of joint operation, American Flyer supplied Ives with freight car
bodies and other parts. Since American Flyer was in need of a steam engine for its own Wide gauge line, in return, the Ives
die-cast #1134 Wide gauge locomotives and tenders were handed over. Flyer was also tasked with handling the Ives clockwork
line of trains in 'O' gauge. The Ives #1134 steamer in wide gauge was a realistic looking die-cast model based on the
Baltimore & Ohio railroad's 'President Washington' 4-6-2 Pacific. It was introduced by Ives at the 1928 Toy Fair. After
American Flyer acquired the tooling they only used the #1134 boiler and tender casting. The running board had to be cut
slightly, to accommodate fitting the American Flyer motor. And some piping had to be eliminated, due to the cutting of the
section of the running board. The tender maintained the original Ives design. American Flyer utilized their own trucks and
coupler. A 'Golden State Limited' name plate was installed on the tender. The automatic reversing version of the #1134
locomotive was given an American Flyer brass button #4694. A whistle was added to the American flyer #4694, but not to the
Ives' #1134 versions. The way that American Flyer numbered equipment was at times confusing. Locomotives were given one
number, and tenders another number. When the two were paired a third number was assigned for both of them together. For
example the #4692 actually refers only to the locomotive. When combined with a #4693 tender they are known as the #4694.
American Flyer's 1929 catalog stated this "new" die-cast engine: "The 15" long locomotive and the realistic 10" tender follow
exactly every element of design, construction and finish found in the real locomotive." The following year,
the former Ives engine was cataloged with a new Vanderbilt tender and appeared at the head of several sets, among them The
Warrior, carried over from the 1929 catalog, and a new, less expensive set called The Iron Monarch. Priced at $54.50 - a sum
that only rich families could afford in 1930. The Warrior featured 14" illuminated club, Pullman, dining, and observation
cars, all with Pocahontas letterboards. In contrast with Lionel cars, where an inserted window strip formed all the windows
on one side of a car, the Pocahontas cars had individual brass window frames with individual clear 'glass' inserts - requiring
a much more labor-intensive manufacturing process. The catalog noted that "This passenger train offers a full measure of
value, quality and long life which has no equal elsewhere." At $47.50, The Iron Monarch featured the same style of cars as its
more expensive stable mate, but without the diner. It was described: "Its superiority is inbuilt. Long life and performance
are obtained by building strength, efficiency and dependability into the individual units that make up this quality
By 1931 American Flyer was pairing the Wide gauge 4-4-2 cast metal locomotive and oil-type tender in
passenger sets such as 'The Flying Colonel' with its even larger 19" Presidential cars. The top of the line 2-tone blue
painted Minuteman set was pulled by a #4694 steam loco and Vanderbilt tender. The loco in this set was fitted with brass
Annapolis plates under the cab windows. 4 cars were included along with the 27" long loco and tender, making this one of the
longest trains ever sold by American Flyer. The correct cars in this set came with nickel flex trucks, and a #4122 operating
mailbag set was included. While this set was listed in the 1931 catalog, no picture was included.
During the early 1930's, American Flyer struggled under increased competition, especially at the low end of the market. In
1931, Flyer announced it would not produce an electric train set to sell for less than $4 like its competition had. However,
within three months, it relented and released a train without transformer that sold for $3.95, and in 1932, it released a set
with transformer that retailed for $3.50. Sales increased, but the company was not profitable. Expansion into other toy arenas
The Great Depression killed all the Wide gauge lines and 'O' became the mainstay of all makers that survived. Flyer Wide gauge
production ended in 1932. Having weathered the depression, Flyer, like Lionel, concentrated on more scale accurate trains that
the public was demanding. Like most of its competition, American Flyer did well in the 1920's, selling more than half a
million trains in its best years, but suffered in the Great Depression, during which the company's focus shifted back to the
more economical 'O' gauge trains. Low-end 'O' gauge trains became the mainstay product. One exception was a very successful
high-quality die-cast New York Central Hudson locomotive with cast aluminum tender, produced in 1936. Other notable trains
from this era included the streamliners. The first offering was the #9915 produced in 1935. This was described
in the catalogues as a New York Central type, but collectors referred to this cast aluminum engine-tender combination as
the Aeolus due to its resemblance to the CB&Q's engine of that name. The second streamlined steam engine made its
appearance in the back pages of the same 1935 catalog. It too was described as an NYC engine. It is also referred to as
the "Minnehaha" because it was part of that particular set. The electrically powered version is usually lithoed in
orange and silver and the clock work version sports a reddish/rose and silver livery. This train was made from 1935-1937
and came in either a two or a three car articulated passenger set or a freight set.
In 1936 Flyer went after the prototype look with its top of the line Hiawatha passenger set. The engine also came in a freight
set. At the same time they also offered an uncatalogued, lithographed tin 0-4-0 version of the Hiawatha which came with either
passenger or freight cars. The 0-4-0 version was made with or without a mechanical whistle that was powered through a gear
train connected to the main gearing of the motor. The engine had either a rounded or a squared rear. The tender for the engine
with the rounded end has a much longer drawbar than the one with the square end. The lithoed engine was made 1936-1937. 1936
also saw the release of the streamlined Comet set. The Comet has a strong resemblance to the lithographed Burlington Zephyr,
and both trains are sheet metal throughout. However, most but not all Burlington coaches have six windows while Comet coaches
always have four. The set was brightly lithographed in blue and silver, with gray and black details. In 1938 the #4603 PRR
streamlined style engine with 2-4-4 wheel arrangement was introduced. The engine was sheet metal with a diecast front end and
came with either freight or passenger cars. Other notable streamliners from this era included the cast-aluminum CB&Q Zephyr
and the City of San Francisco.
The American Flyer cast aluminum Zephyr was first cataloged in 1934. Two different approaches to the model were considered.
Either die cast or sand cast and sheet metal. Die cast technology couldn't produce the kinds of models American Flyer wanted
to create. Sand
cast aluminum was chosen. When they came out of the sand cast, the aluminum bodies had a mold seam down the middle. This
required a grinding and polishing process that resulted in a very bright smooth finish to the roof of the cars and the power
unit. Decals were utilized for applying identification numbers as well as the car and power car lettering. The grinding
and polishing work was expensive and dirty and no one wanted to walk through the final polishing room where the air was thick
with polishing rouge. The 1934 set came with either 3 or 4 cars while the 1935 set had 5 cars. In 1936 a whistle was placed in
the baggage car. This train required using a special 4 rail track to operate the whistle, however the car trucks with power
pickups experienced problems traversing switches. The on board whistle was dropped in 1937 and the whistling billboard was
created as a substitute.
In 1938, W.O. Coleman sold American (Chicago) Flyer to Alfred Carlton Gilbert, a former Olympic pole
vaulter and Yale medical school graduate. Gilbert had made a name for himself in the toy industry in 1909 when he created and
manufactured Mysto Magic sets for youthful magicians. In 1913, his A. C. Gilbert Company also became the makers of Erector Set
construction toys. The two toy magnates were just finishing shooting on Gilbert's game reserve in New Haven when Gilbert
casually mentioned he was thinking about manufacturing toy trains. Gilbert had been making plans to enter the HO gauge train
market. Instead, Coleman said he'd give his struggling American Flyer Co. to Gilbert in return for a share of the profits.
Gilbert quickly agreed. Gilbert had just what the company needed — high standards and the business smarts to pull the company
out of debt. Coleman worked out a potentially lucrative royalty deal with Gilbert, but he died in 1939 before he could reap
any of the benefits.
Gilbert was a shrewd businessman. His accomplishments included not only winning an Olympic Gold medal in pole vaulting, but he
was also the developer of the bamboo pole and new techniques in vaulting. He was also in charge of the U. S. Olympic team in
the legendary 1936 games. He is credited with being one of the founders of Toy Manufacturers of USA, Inc. in 1916. He was also
credited with being a performing magician, a medical doctor, a hunter, a dog breeder, home builder, and toy industry
A. C. Gilbert had previously included trains as part of the Erector Set line. In 1915, the 3rd year the famous Erector Sets
were made, the manual included a design diagram for construction of a 4 car train that was comprised of a locomotive, tender,
gondola and caboose. The design contained so many parts, that no single Erector Set was big enough to construct this train.
Another pattern was published in 1926 that was for a locomotive and tender. This iteration was much more realistic
looking, as Gilbert had developed parts for a boiler and boiler top. Later on during the Erector Classic
period (1924-32), other rolling stock patterns were developed. Those included a more detailed gondola and caboose. In 1930 the
Erector 20th Century #8 set was produced. This was a highly detailed, almost scale, non-powered #4 gauge model of a Hudson J-3
4-6-4 locomotive. At 28" long, 5¼" wide, 8" tall and weighing 9 lbs., this set was very large, and consisted of over 70
separate parts to assemble. Initially the detailed 19½" long tender with New York Central markings to match was made available
in a separate Erector Set. In 1931, a #8½ set was introduced that consisted of both the locomotive and tender. Gilbert also
offered this set in a factory pre-assembled version. This static model could be outfitted with an electric motor capable of
operating the driving wheels and valves. The classic Hudson Erector Sets were made through 1937, and are very rare and highly
sought after by collectors of both Erector Sets and model trains today. They garner very high prices, regardless of their
To A.C. Gilbert the American Flyer train was a real challenge. "Chicago Flyer" was a second rate company just
hanging on. The trains were no better than the Lionel items being marketed at the same time. In 1938
AF sales were not quite at the million mark. As an attempt to improve the image, A. C. Gilbert
decided in 1938 to release a line of HO gauge trains for the first time. The introductory American Flyer
HO line, was called "Tru-Model Trains." The emphasis was on producing scale models rather than toys.
Great pains were taken to obtain blueprints of prototypes and achieve accuracy. The HO line did not even carry the
American Flyer Lines logo. The HO line remained in
place through 1963, but it was not promoted very highly. The A.C. Gilbert Co., in what little advertising they
did for the HO line, emphasized the high amount of precision within their HO steam locomotives. A valiant
effort was made to appeal to true scale modelers during the early HO years. Unfortunately,
Gilbert did not have quite the impact they desired in the HO market during its first years of production.
Gilbert had bought the name and nothing else when he got American Flyer. He planned to redesign the entire line from track to
Gilbert soon moved the company from Chicago to New Haven, Connecticut, closing American Flyer’s Chicago plant. He then began
to completely re-design the entire product line. His main thrust - technically and financially - went into redesigning the
'O' gauge trains. Gilbert pioneered the 3/16" to one foot (what became S-scale) ready-to-run variant of 'O' gauge in 1939, in
which the locomotive and car bodies are scaled to 1:64 scale, making them approximately 25% smaller than the standard 1:48 for
'O' gauge while still running on the same type of three-rail 'O' gauge track. While this allowed the 'S'-scale trains to
navigate tighter curves that would cause a conventional 'O' gauge train to derail or jump the track, Gilbert actually
introduced a wider radius (20") track for added realism. This still resulted in curves that were much tighter than those that
appear in the real world, but appeared much more realistic than the 13.5" radius (O27) gauge train cars that appeared 'stubby'
in length. The new 40" diameter circles allowed more track in the same space as a layout constructed with O72 (36" radius)
curves. The origins of this scale can be traced back to as early as 1919 in the United Kingdom where a modeler named Charles
Wynne produced the Midland Railway's 4-4-0 #999 steam outline loco in 3/16" to the foot. This scale first appeared in the
United States in the mid-1930's when a hobby shop called Cleveland Model & Supply Co., owned by Ed Packard, that was
known for their model airplane kits, advertised plans for embossed paper and wood freight car kits in 3/16". These kits hit
the marklet around 1937 and were labeled as 'C-D' scale (short for Cleveland Designed). The next year, Cleveland
Model & Supply Co. issued a motorized Chicago Great Western Railway 4-6-0 steam outline loco kit and a motorized Pennsylvania
Railroad 0-6-0 steam outline switcher, both in 3/16". However, Packard's new scale failed to compete well with establish 'O',
HO and 'OO' scales and these modeling products disappeared by the beginning of World War II. In 1942, the National Model
Railroad Association (NMRA) formally acknowledged and named the 3/16" scale as 'S'.
Attempting to focus on producing more realistic looking trains, the sets produced by A.C. Gilbert's
American Flyer company in 1939 and up until the outbreak of the war, included the #565 Reading 4-4-2 Atlantic (die-cast loco
with a tin tender), the #545 Pennsylvania 4-4-2 Atlantic (die-cast loco with a tin tender), the #556 Royal Blue 4-6-2 Pacific
(die-cast loco with a tin tender), the #561 Pennsylvania K-5 4-6-2 Pacific (die-cast loco and tender), #570 NYC 4-6-4 Hudson
(die-cast loco and tender) and #572 Union Pacific Challenger (actually a 4-8-4 Northern with a die-cast loco and tender).
These models, while 3/16" scale, were designed to operate on 'O' gauge track. The line was high-quality however, and highly
Lots of changes were introduced in 1939, including a new 3 digit numbering scheme. Gilbert also introduced
its new remote directional control for locomotives in 1939. This reversing unit was operated via a remote control
button, that when pushed, would interrupt the current by triggering a relay. The engine would continue in the same direction
even after the track current was interrupted, the only way to change the locomotive's direction was to push the remote control
button. 'O' gauge locomotives that had the new reversing unit relay installed were identified by the number on the cab, or by
noting that the loco does not have a reverse unit lever protruding through the boiler, but instead has a small pinhole in its
place. Exceptions to this rule were the #569 Hudson and the #571 4-8-4, both catalogued in 1940. A nail or pin inserted into
this hole when the current is on will change the direction of the loco without using the button. In 1939, Remote Directional
Control came with the four offered Tru-Model sets and all HO gauge sets.
The first accessory made of Lucite was introduced in 1939. This was the #587 block signal. The purpose of
the Lucite was to make a smaller, better proportioned light. The bulb was located in the base of the unit and the light was
reflected via the Lucite to simulate light emission. The electromagnetic crane was also new in 1939. Flyer beat Lionel by a
year with this introduction. A station that would be around for several years, that is commonly called by collectors the
Mystic Station or talking station, first appeared in 1939. The Mystic Station was sold as a plain illuminated passenger and
freight station and also as a Koostikin talking passenger and freight station.
Model train hobbyists were even more taken with 1940’s die-cast Pennsylvania K-5 locomotive and the Baltimore & Ohio #556
Royal Blue 4-6-2. American Flyer also produced inexpensive sheet-metal versions for consumers who didn’t have such deep
pockets. In anticipation of America’s involvement in the war, Gilbert opened the Gilbert Hall of Science in New York on
September 17, 1941, to keep his company’s name in the public consciousness. It was a brilliant marketing maneuver, showcasing
American Flyer products in an elaborate miniature scene featuring 80-feet of train track surrounded by mountains, waterfalls,
crossings, and towns. The hall also contained impressive displays of Erector sets and other Gilbert products like chemistry
sets and microscopes, as well as sales offices. Soon, other cities had their own smaller versions of Gilbert Hall.
By 1941, Gilbert had discontinued the earlier designs and advertised his new American Flyer products as "Every train 3/16"
scale from front end to rear end." Some boxes were labeled "3/16 scale" and others labeled "Tru-Model" As most prior trains
from American Flyer and other manufacturers paid little attention to scale (proportional size mirroring the prototype), this
new wrinkle made Gilbert American Flyer distinctive, as his cars at 1:64 were much closer in scale dimension to the prototypes
on real railroads than the comparatively stubby 1:48 scale rolling stock that ran on 'O27' track. The new Choo-Choo Sounds
were also introduced at this time. This was a motortzed piston and cylinder installed in the locomotive tenders that made a
chugging sound. These tenders were also available for separate sale. At the same time, Gilbert also released a line of
die-cast HO scale trains. Total A.C. Gilbert sales for the year 1941 were above $4 million.
During the war years, the A.C. Gilbert Company converted completely to war production. Hundreds of thousands
of parachute flares were produced. Drawing on their experience with magic tricks, booby traps that caught the
enemy off guard and triggering mechanisms were also produced. The motors that controlled the trim tabs on
the first American fighter planes came from the genius of the A.C. Gilbert Company. Designed in a record 72
hours from inception, these tiny motors were produced in thousands and became the prototype for the motor
that powered more than a million and a half engines that pulled a string of freight or passenger cars
around the family Christmas tree. For the war contribution and efforts, Gilbert won 4 Army-Navy "E" awards,
an honor presented to companies during World War II for excellence in production of war equipment.
In 1946, after World War II, Gilbert discontinued manufacturing three-rail 'O' gauge trains entirely
in favor of the slightly (25%) smaller and more realistic 'S' gauge and in the process eliminated the most
unrealistic aspect of toy trains -- the center rail. His 3/16" American Flyer now utilized 2-rail track sized
closer to 1:64 scale, or about seven-eighths inches between rails. The minimum radius for Gilbert's
curves was 19 inches, which added to the look of "realism" missing with the larger 'O' gauge trains running
on curves with a smaller 13.5-inch radius. It was a new scale and a new gauge for toy trains. These
new trains ran on realistic two rail track that was not rounded on top due to some antiquated extrusion
process, but it was "T" shaped like real prototypical railroad track. The surface contact on this new track
was greater and so was the pulling power. AF never needed "magna-traction" - it had real traction in its
engines. American Flyer 'S' gauge was first unveiled at the March 1946 Toy Fair. The entire pre-war line of 3/16"-scaled
locomotives and cars were all converted to 'S' gauge, 2-rail operation. Plus a whole new line of passenger
and freight cars went into production.
In 1946 the American Flyer #332 Union Pacific die-cast 'S' gauge locomotive was introduced.
This Northern style locomotive had a 4-8-4 wheel arrangement with 4 leading, 8 driving, and 4 trailing wheels. It was
accompanied by a 12 wheel oil type tender. At 21½" long, it was the longest locomotive and tender combination ever
made by American Flyer. It used a worm-drive Pull-mor motor, featured Red Glowing Smoke and choo-choo sound. Eventually,
there would be 8 models of the Northern 4-8-4 produced by Gilbert. One modification made was the inclusion of a remote control
steam Whistle. Although it carried the Union Pacific herald, it was patterned after engines employed by the Great Northern
R.R. and New York City also had these but called them Niagaras. The American Flyer Northern (33x series) is modeled after a
specific Union Pacific locomotive. It would remain in the catalogue through 1957 with both AC and DC versions being made, and
original selling prices in the range of $35.
American Flyer Heavyweight Passenger Cars
In 1947 a 2 train contol system was introduced that facilitated operation of both AC and DC
powered train motors on the same track. The A.C. Gilbert Co. maintained factories in New Haven and Branford Connecticut along
with their famed Gilbert Hall of Science, in New York City. Other cities such as Chicago and Washington, D.C.,
also had Halls of Science. The New York Hall of Science had a massive train layout on the main floor along
with displays of Erector and Science toys. On the second floor was another train layout not open to the public,
it was reserved for salesmen, buyers and selected guests. Work shops and offices occupied the remaining floors.
After World War II, A. C. Gilbert had lost some of his drive. A. C. Gilbert, Jr. came into the business and was
given increasing responsibilities. However, Al Jr. did not have his father's drive and decisiveness. He could
be influenced by others.
The Flyer 'S' gauge line developed a devoted following of fans, who were drawn to the detail and
realism of the trains. Lionel trains, however, had more bells and whistles—literally. Lionel’s patented built-in whistle
sounded just like a real steam engine’s, while American Flyer fans had to content themselves with “whistling billboards”
off to the side of the track. In 1949 the Flyer #314AW air whistle was
released, but this technology was found to be in violation of a Lionel half-wave registered patent. Royalty
costs were deemed to be too costly, and the product was withdrawn. In 1951 Flyer released its “Nathan air-chime” whistle,
but operators complained of its wheezy, fake sound. 1950 saw the release of new diesel locomotives with plastic shells and
a reverse loop relay, to deal with the track current issues presented when 2 rail loops were implemented. Also in 1950,
Gilbert released a Circus Train.
In order to further differentiate his product line from that of Lionel, Gilbert
employed a bullet-shaped
(link) coupler, but within a few years (1952), a newer, more realistic knuckle coupler design appeared.
Flyer played up its improved realism and attention to details, with two-rail track and prototypical couplers,
with Gilbert himself saying the design was inspired by his son's dissatisfaction with other toy trains
available on the market. "Kids want realism", he said. His trains, which were closely proportioned to their
prototypes, also had more detail elements than most 'O' gauge competitors. 1952 also saw the introduction of
red glow smoke, Pull-mor motors, and a dead man control on transformers. The company's rendition of the New Haven R.R.'s
distinctive passenger coaches became so recognizable that the full size prototypes became known as "American Flyer cars."
All steam outline engines were die cast to make
them look real and to have the heft of the real thing. There were, in the company's prime, seven basic
steam type engines. There was one basic diesel and one basic diesel switcher. 1955 saw the introduction of
the Diesal-Roar sound unit. In 1957 there was a model of the
New Haven R.R.'s EP-5 electric loco created and marketed. It cost $100,000 for the engine design.
The Gilbert HO line went back into production after the war also. The primary
difference being that trains that were previously produced in die-cast, were now plastic. In 1951, the
HO line was idled due to the Korean War. No magnets were available
for motors. It was not offered again until 1955 when a new revitalized line
called Gilbert HO (instead of American Flyer Lines), consisting of ready-to-run trains made by Gordon Varney's
Florida based company was released. Varney provided the A-B F-3 diesels which Gilbert started offering for
the first time in 1955. And Varney created the first HO boxcar offerings that the Gilbert line ever carried.
They also made freight cars, passenger cars and steam locomotives for Gilbert. Once again however, sales
were not what Gilbert had expected them to be.
In 1957 the 3 digit numbering system that had been in use was replaced with a 5 digit system. This change
was made because so many different products had been manufactured, that available catalog numbers for new products were running out.
That year, 1957, saw the largest catalog of products ever offered by the A.C. Gilbert Company.
On their 50th anniversary in 1959, Gilbert produced the famous Frontiersman Old Time
passenger train in both 'S' gauge and HO. The 'S' gauge is fairly easy to find these days, but the
HO version is not so easy to come across. Gilbert manufactured the 'S' version, but looked outside to
Tyco/Mantua to manufacture the HO version. This set, which included a 4-4-0
wood burner type loco and two passenger cars is referred to as the 'Fifty Years of Progress' set
and is highly sought after by collectors. Interestingly, the original model used to develop this set
was one created by E.P. Alexander for the U.S. Information Service. A copy of the model
was on display in Alexander's museum in Yardley, PA and was seen by the sales manager for American Flyer trains.
The sales manager thought it would be ideal to reproduce the train for their line and subsequently purchased the model.
This was a significant event in that it was the first time one of the top toy train producers went outside of their own development
organization to obtain a pilot model for a new product.
Although the line was extensively redesigned, with interruptions during World War II
and the Korean conflict, by the time the redesign was complete in the mid 1950's, electric train sales had already begun their
long-term decline. While popular, American Flyer was always the No.2 brand to Lionel in terms of
market share at the
high end of the market. Based on comparative sales records taken from Moody's Industrials of the A.C.
Gilbert Company and Lionel Corporation between 1950 and 1960, the total train sales were about $340 million.
Of this, American Flyer is estimated to amount to $120 million, or as much as 1/3 of the market.
With Marx and a handful of other brands relegated to the
low end of the market, Lionel and American Flyer shared premium status. A rivalry emerged between both
companies' fans that continues today. Gilbert in its prime was one of the largest, best known and respected
toy makers. It was also the largest manufacturer of fractional horsepower motors, holding the patent for
Like Lionel, Gilbert was caught off guard by the popularity of HO scale trains
that offered better realism
at a lower price than its American Flyer 'S' gauge products. But the true reason for the demise of the toy
train industry was the changing interests of American youth. A new technology called television was taking
the place of many traditional hobbies, and the toy market was subject to the success of unpredictable
overnight fads like the Hula-Hoop and yo-yo. Kids were also eschewing their Lionel and American Flyer
trains in favor of remote-control slot car racing sets.
Finally, the national phenomena of the discount store craze was ravaging toy train
distribution network -- mom-and-pop hobby shops -- and sending them into financial oblivion. The discount
stores demanded train sets at a low wholesale price and refused to offer the personal attention and repair
services of the hobby shop. In order to get product on the shelves of discounters, toy train manufacturers
cheapened their lines to get the price point down on sets -- which exacerbated the downward economic spiral.
Longtime train collectors and hobbyists were offended at this newer production, dismissing the new products
as "cheap junk", an accurate description.
A.C. Gilbert retained some control of the business until 1958, when illness forced him to minimize
his activities. The company's problems were compounded by A.C. Gilbert's eventual death in 1961, at the age of 76.
With the popularity of toy trains and construction toys declining, and without another successful product line to buoy the
company's finances, Gilbert found itself in serious financial trouble. Finally, a controlling majority of the company stock
(144,000 shares) was sold by the family to a holding company, the Wrather Group, in 1962, right after A.C.'s death.
The Wrather group owned the Disneyland Hotel and Lassie Conglomerate (Jack Wrather was the producer of "Lassie").
A.C. Gilbert, Jr., continued to act as CEO. A primary reason the controlling interest in Gilbert was sold was because in
1961 Al, Jr., A.C.'s son had become aware that he himself had serious health problems. Within a few months, A.C. Jr. also passed away.
It was the end of an era.
Under the new ownership, the A.C. Gilbert Co. continued to struggle, although the new owners took a
more aggressive approach to advertising and marketing than when the firm was headed by the more
conservative A.C. Gilbert. The company continued to manufacture trains of limited appeal for the next several years,
thanks to the questionable quality. It also manufactured a wide variety of poorly-designed
and poorly-conceived toys (dolls, racing sets, games) that sold slowly, if at all, and was nearly
overwhelmed by store returns of defective merchandise. The company delivered many of its toy line
products to discounters with a "100% sale guarantee." When the merchandise didn't sell through, it ended
up back in Gilbert's warehouses. Gilbert took an especially-hard hit when a majority of a
poorly-designed and manufactured red James Bond 007 slot car racing set flooded back as returns
after component failures. Because of the number of returns, these sets are rare and extremely collectable,
now selling for an average of $1000 on eBay. The company never made money after 1961. It lost and it lost and it
lost. Rumors had begun to circultate about the company's financial stability.
Gilbert experienced five straight years of losses, including a $9 million deficit for 1966 (up to $17 million overall
during the 5 year period). The company discontinued the American Flyer train line in 1966 and
finally declared bankruptcy in 1967. All the Gilbert Halls of Science had been closed by 1966.
It was announced on January 30, 1967 that the A.C. Gilbert Company was
getting ready to call it quits. Intially negotiations were undertaken with Gabriel Industries to buy the patents and toy lines.
Gabriel Industries bought the Erector Set line from Wrather Corporation for no money,
just a promise of future royalties. It became the Gilbert Division of Gabriel Industries, and was moved to Lancaster,
PA. Erector Set products continued to be manufactured in the US through 1988. The Erector brand ownership eventually was acquired
by the Japanese NikkoCorp., a maker of remote-control toy airplanes and cars. The toy is distributed in the U.S. by
Brio, a public company based in Sweden that is known for wooden train sets.
In May 1967, Lionel Corporation announced it had purchased the American Flyer name and tooling even
though it was teetering on the brink of financial failure itself. A May 29, 1967 story in The Wall Street
Journal made light of the deal, stating, "Two of the best-known railroads in the nation are merging
and the Interstate Commerce Commission couldn't care less". Former Lionel treasurer Robert A. Stein
said Lionel did not initiate the deal; both companies had farmed out their accounts receivable departments
to Arthur Heller & Co., who initiated the transaction. While various accounts published over the years
valued the deal at $150,000, Stein's recollection was that Lionel simply liquidated $300,000-$400,000
worth of American Flyer inventory for Heller in exchange for the tooling, which, by some accounts, sat
unused and neglected in a parking lot for some period of time. Lionel Corporation never manufactured
American Flyer trains.
Within two years, Lionel Corp. was bankrupt itself and had sold its train lines to General Mills,
including the unused American Flyer tooling. In 1979, General Mills' Lionel division started to reissue
Flyer products under that name employing a mix of previously unused railroad heralds and traditional
Gilbert American Flyer designs.
In 1984, General Mills sold the Lionel Co. to Kenner, a toy manufacturer. One year later, the company
was sold to Richard Kughn, a Detroit toy train collector who made his fortune selling and developing
real estate. For over a decade, Kughn moved both the Lionel and American Flyer brands forward, getting
a shot of momentum from a resurgence in the toy train hobby in the early 1990's. In 1996, Kughn sold a
majority interest to Wellspring Partners LLD, a Chicago-based national turnaround firm headed by Martin
Davis. Kughn retained a small percentage, and rock star Neil Young, another toy train buff, also became
a minor investor. Young's contributions include designing a sound system for trains (RailSounds) in 1992,
as well as the Trainmaster Command Control (TMCC), a unique radio control system. The new company is known
as Lionel, LLC.
The American Flyer brand name survives today under the guidance of Lionel, LLC, although Lionel's
advertising and marketing emphasis tends to remain skewed toward the 'O' and 'O27' gauge product
lines. True American Flyer aficionados claim this narrow focus is a conflict of interest and prevents the
growth of 'S' gauge among new train operators. Most of the initial American Flyer-branded product sold by Lionel,
LLC consisted of reissues of 1950's designs utilizing refurbished old Gilbert tooling, decorated in traditional
road names and paint schemes used by Gilbert, as well as an influx of some of today's modern railroad
heralds. For a long time, American Flyer devotees were concerned that Lionel was not creating Flyer products
that appealed to the toy train masses, but rather, focused on a small market of Flyer collectors. Lionel has publicly stated that
they are committed to the American Flyer product line.
Each year since 2002 Lionel has in-fact increased the number of American
Flyer offerings, a sign the demand for 3/16" 'S' gauge is growing. In late 2004, Lionel debuted
a new highly-detailed, 2-8-2 Mikado steam locomotive in multiple road names. Utilizing all new tooling
and issued under the American Flyer name, the Mike was the first original American Flyer steam locomotive
design since the late 1950's. It was touted by Lionel as "an engineering marvel which even brass collectors can admire".
It came complete with TMCC (Lionel's proprietary wireless remote control technology)
and a sound chip/system (TrainSounds). The Mikados proved to be a hot seller and their success has
led to similar product issues. In late 2006, Lionel began delivering an updated remake of AF's largest steam
locomotive, the famous 4-8-4 Northern, as well as a gray Union Pacific Northern with smoke deflectors
(elephant ears). Both of these new versions were equipped with digital sounds. The 2006 Lionel Catalogue One included
over thirty different products in 'S' gauge American Flyer. In 2006 and 2007 came a new high-detail
Pacific (4-6-2) with both TMCC capability and RailSounds. Additionally, Lionel released in 2006
the first newly tooled passenger fleet. These heavyweight style cars were neither a refashioning of older
Flyer designs nor a repurposing of Lionel '027' rolling stock (as some earlier Lionel/Flyer freight cars
had been.) Lionel's investment in new tooling began to be taken among 'S'-scalers as a sign of real
commitment by the manufacturer to their market segment, and as an optimistic future view for the brand,
the gauge and the hobby itself. Over the past few years, Lionel LLC has released scale SD70ACe and U33C diesels
and in 2011 a 4-6-6-4 Challenger steam outline loco was issued. In 2012, an American
Flyer 2-8-8-2 Y-3 class detailed locomotive was manufactured
based on the 1919 prototype that ran on the Norfolk & Western R.R.
As far as the classic American Flyer wide gauge and 'O' gauge trains of the 1920's and 30's,
reproductions have been made and sold over the years by the likes of McCoy Manufacturing,
Richart, Sirus-Varney, and MTH.